Spirocerca lupi is a parasitic nematode of canids that induces a myriad of clinical manifesta-tions in its host and, in 25% of infections, leads to the formation of sarcomas. The description of the protein composition of the excretory and secretory products (Sl-ESP) of S. lupi has shed light on its possible interactions with the host environment, including migration within the host and mechanisms of immunomodulation. Despite this, the process by which S. lupi induces cancer in the dog remains poorly understood, and some hypotheses have arisen regarding these possible mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the role of specific ESP from the carcinogenic helminths Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Schistosoma haematobium in inducing chronic inflammation and cancer in their host’s tissues. The parasitic worms Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, Heterakis gallinarum, Trichuris muris and Strongyloides stercoralis, which have less-characterized mechanisms of cancer induction, are also analyzed. Based on the pathological findings in spirocercosis and the mechanisms by which other parasitic helminths induce cancer, we propose that the sustained inflammatory response in the dog´s tissues produced in response to the release of Sl-ESP homologous to those of other carcinogenic worms may lead to the malignant process in infected dogs.
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- Excretory and secretory products
- Spirocerca lupi