SSeCKS/gravin/AKAP12 inhibits cancer cell invasiveness and chemotaxis by suppressing a protein kinase C Raf/MEK/ERK pathway

Bing Su, Yahao Bu, David Engelberg, Irwin H. Gelman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

76 Scopus citations

Abstract

SSeCKS/Gravin/AKAP12 ("SSeCKS") encodes a cytoskeletal protein that regulatesG1→S progression by scaffolding cyclins, protein kinase C (PKC) and PKA. SSeCKS is down-regulated in many tumor types including prostate, and when re-expressed in MAT-LyLu (MLL) prostate cancer cells, SSeCKS selectively inhibits metastasis by suppressing neovascularization at distal sites, correlating with its ability to down-regulate proangiogenic genes including Vegfa. However, the forced re-expression of VEGF only rescues partial lung metastasis formation. Here, we show that SSeCKS potently inhibits chemotaxis and Matrigel invasion, motility parameters contributing to metastasis formation. SSeCKS suppressed serum-induced activation of the Raf/ MEK/ERK pathway, resulting in down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression. In contrast, SSeCKS had no effect on serum-induced phosphorylation of the Src substrate, Shc, in agreement with our previous data that SSeCKS does not inhibit Src kinase activity in cells. Invasiveness and chemotaxis could be restored by the forced expression of constitutively active MEK1, MEK2, ERK1, orPKCα. SSeCKS suppressed phorbol ester-induced ERK1/2 activity only if it encoded its PKC binding domain (amino acids 553-900), suggesting that SSeCKS attenuates ERK activation through a direct scaffolding of conventional and/or novel PKC isozymes. Finally, control of MLL invasiveness by SSeCKS is influenced by the actin cytoskeleton: the ability of SSeCKS to inhibit podosome formation is unaffected by cytochalasin D or jasplakinolide, whereas its ability to inhibit MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation is nullified by jasplakinolide. Our findings suggest that SSeCKS suppresses metastatic motility by disengaging activated Src and then inhibiting the PKC-Raf/MEK/ERK pathways controlling matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression and podosome formation.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)4578-4586
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume285
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - 12 Feb 2010

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