Superheating of ice crystals in antifreeze protein solutions

Yeliz Celik, Laurie A. Graham, Yee Foong Mok, Maya Bar, Peter L. Davies, Ido Braslavsky*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

114 Scopus citations


It has been argued that for antifreeze proteins (AFPs) to stop ice crystal growth, they must irreversibly bind to the ice surface. Surface-adsorbed AFPs should also prevent ice from melting, but to date this has been demonstrated only in a qualitative manner. Here we present the first quantitative measurements of superheating of ice in AFP solutions. Superheated ice crystals were stable for hours above their equilibrium melting point, and the maximum superheating obtained was 0.44°C. When melting commenced in this superheated regime, rapid melting of the crystals from a point on the surface was observed. This increase in melting temperature was more appreciable for hyperactive AFPs compared to the AFPs with moderate antifreeze activity. For each of the AFP solutions that exhibited superheating, the enhancement of the melting temperature was far smaller than the depression of the freezing temperature. The present findings clearly show that AFPs adsorb to ice surfaces as part of their mechanism of action, and this absorption leads to protection of ice against melting as well as freezing.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)5423-5428
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number12
StatePublished - 23 Mar 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Gibbs-thomson effect
  • Ice recrystallization
  • Irreversible binding
  • Melting hysteresis
  • Thermal hysteresis


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