Understanding the spread of diseases through complex networks is of great interest where realistic, heterogeneous contact patterns play a crucial role in the spread. Most works have focused on mean-field behavior - quantifying how contact patterns affect the emergence and stability of (meta)stable endemic states in networks. On the other hand, much less is known about longer time scale dynamics, such as disease extinction, whereby inherent process stochasticity and contact heterogeneity interact to produce large fluctuations that result in the spontaneous clearance of infection. Here we show that heterogeneity in both susceptibility and infectiousness (incoming and outgoing degree, respectively) has a nontrivial effect on extinction in directed contact networks, both speeding up and slowing down extinction rates depending on the relative proportion of such edges in a network, and on whether the heterogeneities in the incoming and outgoing degrees are correlated or anticorrelated. In particular, we show that weak anticorrelated heterogeneity can increase the disease stability, whereas strong heterogeneity gives rise to markedly different results for correlated and anticorrelated heterogeneous networks. All analytical results are corroborated through various numerical schemes including network Monte Carlo simulations.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
E.K. and M.A. acknowledge support from the ISF Grant No. 531/20. M.A. also acknowledges the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation for an experienced researcher fellowship.
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