Purpose. To validate our hypothesis that a bisphosphonate (BP) having a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic ring on the side chain, and with no hydroxyl on the geminal carbon would possess increased activity, and better oral bioavailability due to enhanced solubility of its calcium complexes/salts and weaker Ca chelating properties. Methods. A novel BP, 2-(2- aminopyrimidinio)ethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonic acid betaine (ISA-13-1) was synthesized. The physicochemical properties and permeability were studied in vitro. The effects on macrophages, bone resorption (young growing rat model), and tumor-induced osteolysis (Walker carcinosarcoma) were studied in comparison to clinically used BPs. Results. The solubility of the Ca salt of ISA-13-1 was higher, and the log β(Ca: BP) stability constant and the affinity to hydroxyapatite were lower than those of alendronate and pamidronate. ISA-13-1 exhibited effects similar to those of alendronate on bone volume, on bone osteolysis, and on macrophages, following delivery by liposomes. ISA-131 was shown to have 1.5-1.7 times better oral absorption than the other BPs with no deleterious effects on the tight junctions of intestinal tissue. Conclusions. The similar potency to clinically used BPs, the increased oral absorption as well as the lack of effect on tissue tight junction of ISA-13-1 warrant its further consideration as a potential drug for bone diseases.
- Bisphosphonates (diphosphonates)
- Bone-related disorders
- Calcium-related disorders
- Drug absorption tight junctions
- Drug administration