Testing the Validity of the Expanded Five-Dimensional Model of Work Orientations

Tirza Willner, Yuliya Lipshits-Braziler*, Itamar Gati, Bar Shachrur

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Finding meaning and purpose in work has become increasingly important in today’s volatile world. Work orientations reflect the purpose individuals see in their work. The Work Orientation Questionnaire (WOQ), based on the expanded five-dimensional model of work orientation (Willner et al., 2020), was used to elicit individuals’ purpose of work - calling, job, career, social embeddedness, and busyness. In Study 1 (N = 315 employees), the five work orientations were moderately associated with Schein’s (1990) career anchors supporting the WOQ’s convergent and discriminant validity. Study 2 using 5-year longitudinal data from 206 college graduates, revealed that the motives for selecting a college major had small to negligible associations with the five work orientations. Study 3 (N = 414 employees), applying Holland’s (1997) classification of the six RIASEC environments, found that a calling orientation was most prominent among those working in a Social environment, whereas a job orientation was most prominent among individuals in a Conventional environment. Moreover, work orientations accounted for work satisfaction and career choice satisfaction beyond career anchors, motives for choosing a college major, and work environments. Theoretical and practical implications of cultivating purpose at work are discussed.

Original languageAmerican English
JournalJournal of Career Assessment
StateAccepted/In press - 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2024.


  • career anchors
  • purpose of work
  • work meaning
  • work orientations
  • work satisfaction


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