The 2021 room-temperature superconductivity roadmap

Boeri Lilia*, Richard Hennig*, Peter Hirschfeld*, Gianni Profeta*, Antonio Sanna*, Eva Zurek*, Warren E. Pickett, Maximilian Amsler, Ranga Dias, Mikhail I. Eremets, Christoph Heil, Russell J. Hemley, Hanyu Liu, Yanming Ma, Carlo Pierleoni, Aleksey N. Kolmogorov, Nikita Rybin, Dmitry Novoselov, Vladimir Anisimov, Artem R. OganovChris J. Pickard, Tiange Bi, Ryotaro Arita, Ion Errea, Camilla Pellegrini, Ryan Requist, E. K.U. Gross, Elena Roxana Margine, Stephen R. Xie, Yundi Quan, Ajinkya Hire, Laura Fanfarillo, G. R. Stewart, J. J. Hamlin, Valentin Stanev, Renato S. Gonnelli, Erik Piatti, Davide Romanin, Dario Daghero, Roser Valenti

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

96 Scopus citations


Designing materials with advanced functionalities is the main focus of contemporary solid-state physics and chemistry. Research efforts worldwide are funneled into a few high-end goals, one of the oldest, and most fascinating of which is the search for an ambient temperature superconductor (A-SC). The reason is clear: superconductivity at ambient conditions implies being able to handle, measure and access a single, coherent, macroscopic quantum mechanical state without the limitations associated with cryogenics and pressurization. This would not only open exciting avenues for fundamental research, but also pave the road for a wide range of technological applications, affecting strategic areas such as energy conservation and climate change. In this roadmap we have collected contributions from many of the main actors working on superconductivity, and asked them to share their personal viewpoint on the field. The hope is that this article will serve not only as an instantaneous picture of the status of research, but also as a true roadmap defining the main long-term theoretical and experimental challenges that lie ahead. Interestingly, although the current research in superconductor design is dominated by conventional (phonon-mediated) superconductors, there seems to be a widespread consensus that achieving A-SC may require different pairing mechanisms. In memoriam, to Neil Ashcroft, who inspired us all.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number183002
JournalJournal of Physics Condensed Matter
Issue number18
StatePublished - 3 Mar 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
ANK acknowledges the support through the NSF Award No. DMR-1821815.

Funding Information:
We thank the Russian Science Foundation (Grant 19-72-30043) for support.

Funding Information:
We acknowledge the National Science Foundation (DMR-1827815) for financial support.

Funding Information:
The author acknowledges the financial support by JSPS KAKENHI Grant No. 19H05825.

Funding Information:
Yundi Quan has provided many useful discussions on this topic, and assistance with preparation of the figures in this paper. Giustino’s review [] contains a wealth of references on this topic. This work was supported by US National Science Foundation Grant DMR 1607139.

Funding Information:
We acknowledge financial support by the Deutsche Forschungs-Gemeinschaft through Grant (DFG) for funding through TRR 288–422213477 (B05). This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. NSF PHY-1748958.

Funding Information:
ERM acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation (Award No. OAC-1740263).

Funding Information:
I thank Alice Shipley and Michael Hutcheon for their careful reading of the manuscript and insightful comments. This work has been funded by the EPSRC over many years (Projects EP/G007489/1 and EP/P022596/1), and through a Royal Society Wolfson Research Merit Award.

Funding Information:
The work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-SC-0020385.

Funding Information:
We thank G Profeta and G Lamura for fruitful scientific discussions. We acknowledge funding from the MIUR PRIN-2017 program (Grant No. 2017Z8TS5B—‘Tuning and understanding Quantum phases in 2D materials—Quantum2D’).

Funding Information:
We acknowledge financial support by the European Research Council Advanced Grant FACT (ERC-2017-AdG-788890). AS acknowledges hospitality of the Physics Department of La Sapienza, under the program ‘Professori Visitatori 2020’.

Funding Information:
We acknowledge Ashkan Salamat, Elliot Snider, Nathan Dasenbrock-Gammon, Raymond McBride, Mathew Debessai for useful discussions. This was supported by NSF, Grant No. DMR-1809649, and by the DOE Stockpile Stewardship Academic Alliance Program, Grant No. DE-NA0003898.

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program (Grant Agreement No. 802533).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd.


  • crystal structure prediction
  • electron-phonon interaction
  • hydrides
  • novel superconductors
  • superconductivity
  • superconductor


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