The 3P model for creating sustainable educational reform: an epilogue to the special issue

Thomas Peter Gumpel*, Judah Koller, Naomi Weintraub, Shirli Werner, Vered Wiesenthal

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Purpose: This article presents a conceptual synthesis of the international literature on inclusive education while expanding upon, and incorporating, the articles in this special issue. The authors present their 3P model (philosophy, policy and praxis) and relate each paper in this special issue to different aspects of their model. Design/methodology/approach: This article serves as an epilogue to this special issue of the Journal of Educational Administration as well as a discussion of historical and conceptual distinctions between mainstreaming and inclusion while examining global trends in understanding the move toward inclusive education. Findings: The authors examined the detrimental effects of ableism and a medical model of disability and their effects on the educational system. They conducted an analysis based on examining the philosophy, policy and practice of the inclusive movement, specifically by examining conceptual models and inclusive decisions, conceptual frameworks for describing inclusive policy and a focus of the application to educational administration. The authors examined the global movement from segregation/exclusion to integration and then to inclusionary praxis. Research limitations/implications: The authors maintain that the inclusion literature lacks a sound positivistic empirical base, and so they present throughout the article possible avenues for such research as well as future directions for comparative research. Practical implications: Understanding the philosophical underpinnings of the inclusive movement is central to developing viable inclusive educational settings. The authors distinguish between inclusive schools and local educational authorities where stakeholders have moved toward an inclusionary system (the minority) versus locales who are reluctant to move systems to actual change. Originality/value: This article takes a wider view of inclusionary practices, from one focusing on children with disabilities to one focusing on historical and traditional exclusionary practices. By widening the scope of the inclusion discussion, to one of exclusion, the authors present a viably wider lens to educational administration.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)571-584
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Educational Administration
Issue number5
StatePublished - 24 Aug 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, Emerald Publishing Limited.


  • Educational policy
  • Exclusion
  • Inclusion
  • Medical model
  • Universal design for learning


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