The Acheulo-Yabrudian – Early Middle Paleolithic sequence of Misliya Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel

Mina Weinstein-Evron*, Yossi Zaidner

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Misliya Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel was occupied between 250 and 160 ka. During this time the site was inhabited by bearers of the Acheulo-Yabrudian and Early Middle Paleolithic (Mousterian) techno-complexes. The Acheulo-Yabrudian industry is characterized by production of thick and wide flakes and shows no evidence of laminar or Levallois methods. The varied assemblage encompasses true bifaces, artifacts fully worked on one face and only partially on the other, unifaces and scrapers. All these morphological groups were produced using the same flaking and retouching modes. The emergence of the Early Middle Paleolithic is manifested by a technological break, marked by the disappearance of bifaces and thick-flake production technology and the introduction of blade manufacture using laminar and Levallois production methods, and Levallois points and triangular flakes. The mean TL ages of the Acheulo-Yabrudian assemblage indicate production of this cultural complex 257 ± 28 ka – 247 ± 24 ka. The mean TL ages of the Early Middle Paleolithic industries range from 212 ± 27 to 166 ± 23 ka. The pronounced differences in lithic technology together with TL chronology indicate that the transition from the Lower to the Middle Paleolithic in the Levant was rapid and may imply the arrival of a new population around 250 ka.

Original languageAmerican English
Title of host publicationHuman paleontology and prehistory
Subtitle of host publicationcontributions in honor of Yoel Rak
EditorsErella Hovers, Assaf Marom, Yoel Rak
Place of PublicationCham, Switzerland
Number of pages15
ISBN (Print)9783319466446
StatePublished - 2017

Publication series

NameVertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology
ISSN (Print)1877-9077

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments Misliya Cave is located in the Mount Carmel Nature Reserve, managed by the Israel Nature and Parks Authority. The Misliya project is supported by the Dan David Foundation, the Leakey Foundation, the Irene Levi-Sala Care Archaeological Foundation and the Faculty of Humanities, the University of Haifa (by whom it is coined the “Faculty Cave”) and the Israel Science Foundation (grant no. 1104/12). LSCE reference: 5003. Special thanks are due to the late Dan David for his enthusiastic support throughout. We thank Daniel Kaufman for his thoughtful remarks. Israel Antiquities Authority permit numbers for the Misliya Cave excavations: G-16/2001, G-39/2002, G-14/2003, G-29/2004, G-12/2005, G-12/2006, G-4/2007, G-54/2008, G-52/2009, G-50/2010.

Publisher Copyright:
© Springer International Publishing AG 2017.


  • Acheulo-Yabrudian
  • Early Middle Paleolithic
  • Levant
  • Lower-Middle Paleolithic transition


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