The antioxidant tempamine: In vitro antitumor and neuroprotective effects and optimization of liposomal encapsulation and release

Veronica Wasserman, Pablo Kizelsztein, Olga Garbuzenko, Ron Kohen, Haim Ovadia, Rinat Tabakman, Yechezkel Barenholz*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations

Abstract

The piperidine nitroxide tempamine (TMN) is a cell-permeable, stable radical having antioxidant, anticancer, and proapoptotic and/or pronecrotic activities, as was demonstrated by us in cell cultures. We also demonstrated synergism between TMN and doxorubicin in doxorubicin-sensitive and doxorubicin-resistant cell lines. Treatment of the C26 mouse colon carcinoma model in vivo also demonstrated synergism between TMN and doxorubicin in sterically stabilized liposomes (SSLs) containing TMN (SSL-TMN) and those containing doxorubicin. The above effects of TMN and SSL-TMN motivated us to develop and optimize the SSL-TMN formulation so that it will be able to reach the disease site with a sufficiently high TMN level and a release rate needed to achieve a therapeutic effect. Because TMN is an amphipathic weak base, it was remote loaded by an intraliposome high/extraliposome low transmembrane ammonium sulfate gradient. The kinetics and level of TMN loading were monitored by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR); the latter also indicates TMN precipitation in the intraliposomal aqueous phase. The regeneration of the original CV and EPR signals by the ionophore nigericin indicates that TMN remained fully intact during loading and release. The cardinal role of the transmembrane ammonium ion gradient in the loading process was proven by the use of the selective ionophores nonactin (for NH 4+) and nigericin (for H+). The anion of the ammonium salts affects loading stability and the rate of TMN release, both mediated through the TMN state of aggregation in the intraliposomal aqueous phase. The greater the TMN salt precipitation, the slower the TMN release rate. This was supported by measurement of osmolality, which is inversely related to TMN salt precipitate. Precipitation is in the order SO4-22 Cl-1 > glucuronate-1. Liposome lipid composition, magnitude of the transmembrane ammonium ion gradient, and type of anion of the ammonium salt determine the amount of TMN loaded and its release rate.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1937-1947
Number of pages11
JournalLangmuir
Volume23
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 13 Feb 2007

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