The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a multisubunit ubiquitin ligase that mediates the proteolysis of cell cycle proteins in mitosis and G1. We used a yeast three-hybrid screen to identify proteins that interact with the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of platelet-derived growth factor 2 mRNA. Surprisingly, this screen identified Apc5, although it does not harbor a classical RNA binding domain. We found that Apc5 binds the poly(A) binding protein (PABP), which directly binds the IRES element. PABP was found to enhance IRES-mediated translation, whereas Apc5 overexpression counteracted this effect. In addition to its association with the APC/C complex, Apc5 binds much heavier complexes and cosediments with the ribosomal fraction. In contrast to Apc3, which is associated only with the APC/ C and remains intact during differentiation, Apc5 is degraded upon megakaryocytic differentiation in correlation with IRES activation. Expression of Apc5 in differentiated cells abolished IRES activation. This is the first report implying an additional role for an APC/C subunit, apart from its being part of the APC/C complex.