Background and Aims: Given the paucity of population-based data on the association between inflammatory bowel diseases [IBD], coeliac disease [CeD], and coeliac autoimmunity [CeA] we aimed to study the associations in a nationwide study. Methods: Using health administrative data for all four health maintenance organisations in Israel, covering 98% of the population, we explored the prevalence of CeD in children and adults with IBD versus non-IBD matched controls. CeD was defined by three ICD-9 codes and CeA by positivity for tissue transglutaminase antibodies. Results: In total, 34 375 IBD patients (56% Crohn’s disease [CD] and 44% ulcerative colitis [UC]) were compared with 93 603 non-IBD controls. Among IBD patients, 319 [0.93%] had CeD versus 294 [0.31%] non-IBD controls (odds ratio [OR] = 2.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.54-3.48; p <0.001). CeA was identified in 575 [1.67%] IBD patients vs 158 [0.17%] controls [OR = 10.06, 95% CI 8.43-12; p <0.001]. The prevalence of CeD was higher in paediatric-onset IBD (87/5243 [1.66%]) than adult-onset IBD (232/29 132 [0.79%]; p <0.001). CD patients had a higher prevalence of CeD (229/19 264 [1.19%]) than UC patients (90/15 111 [0.56%]; OR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.57-2.56; p <0.001). The diagnosis of CeD preceded the diagnosis of IBD in 241/319 cases [76%]. The time to treatment escalation was shorter in patients with both IBD and CeD than in patients with IBD without CeD [p = 0.017]. Conclusion: CeD and CeA are more prevalent in IBD patients, especially in paediatric-onset IBD and in CD. The diagnosis of CeD usually precedes that of IBD. Having CeD is associated with more intensified treatment for IBD.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The epi-IIRN project has been funded by an educational grant from the Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust. The authors would like to thank Chagit Friss, Rona Lujan, Adi Mendelovici, and Gili Focht for their assistance in data collection, analysis, and support of the study.
© The Author(s) 2022.
- Inflammatory bowel disease
- coeliac autoimmunity
- coeliac disease