The bacterial metalloprotease NleD selectively cleaves mitogen-activated protein kinases that have high flexibility in their activation loop

Lihi Gur-Arie*, Maayan Eitan-Wexler, Nina Weinberger, Ilan Rosenshine, Oded Livnah

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations

Abstract

Microbial pathogens often target the host mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) network to suppress host immune responses. We previously identified a bacterial type III secretion system effector, termed NleD, a metalloprotease that inactivates MAPKs by specifically cleaving their activation loop. Here, we show that NleDs form a growing family of virulence factors harbored by human and plant pathogens as well as insect symbionts. These NleDs disable specifically Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and p38s that are required for host immune response, whereas extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which is essential for host cell viability, remains intact. We investigated the mechanism that makes ERK resistant to NleD cleavage. Biochemical and structural analyses revealed that NleD exclusively targets activation loops with high conformational flexibility. Accordingly, NleD cleaved the flexible loops of JNK and p38 but not the rigid loop of ERK. Our findings elucidate a compelling mechanism of native substrate proteolysis that is promoted by entropy-driven specificity. We propose that such entropy-based selectivity is a general attribute of proteolytic enzymes.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)9409-9420
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume295
Issue number28
DOIs
StatePublished - 10 Jul 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Gur-Arie et al. Published under exclusive license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'The bacterial metalloprotease NleD selectively cleaves mitogen-activated protein kinases that have high flexibility in their activation loop'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this