The blood brain barrier and neuropsychiatric lupus: new perspectives in light of advances in understanding the neuroimmune interface

Ariel D. Stock, Sivan Gelb, Ofer Pasternak, Ayal Ben-Zvi*, Chaim Putterman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

51 Scopus citations


Experts have previously postulated a linkage between lupus associated vascular pathology and abnormal brain barriers in the immunopathogenesis of neuropsychiatric lupus. Nevertheless, there are some discrepancies between the experimental evidence, or its interpretation, and the working hypotheses prevalent in this field; specifically, that a primary contributor to neuropsychiatric disease in lupus is permeabilization of the blood brain barrier. In this commonly held view, any contribution of the other known brain barriers, including the blood-cerebrospinal fluid and meningeal barriers, is mostly excluded from the discussion. In this review we will shed light on some of the blood brain barrier hypotheses and try to trace their roots. In addition, we will suggest new research directions to allow for confirmation of alternative interpretations of the experimental evidence linking the pathology of intra-cerebral vasculature to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric lupus.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)612-619
Number of pages8
JournalAutoimmunity Reviews
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
These studies were supported by training grant T32-GM007288 to A. Stock from the NIH; research grants from the National Institute of Mental Health (MH108574) and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (EB015902) to O. Pasternak; research grants from the Abisch-Frenkel Foundation (15/H1) and The Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust (2015PG-ISL007) to A. Ben-Zvi; and a research grant from the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (AR065594) to C. Putterman. We wish to thank Mr. Yitchak Yadegari for help with graphical illustrations.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Elsevier B.V.


  • Blood-CSF barrier
  • Blood-brain-barrier
  • Choroid plexus
  • Glymphatics
  • Neuropsychiatric lupus
  • SLE


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