The brief state rumination inventory (BSRI): Validation and psychometric evaluation

Igor Marchetti*, Nilly Mor, Carlo Chiorri, Ernst H.W. Koster

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

62 Scopus citations


Depressive rumination is an emotion regulation strategy that is considered a major risk factor for depression and other emotional disorders. While well-established measures of trait rumination are available, a psychometrically sound measure of state rumination is lacking. We report on the development and validation of a new self-report measure, the Brief State Rumination Inventory (BSRI), in both Dutch and English. In Study 1, we report the results of a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis across three independent samples (n = 155; n = 141; n = 199). The analysis supported the unidimensionality and measurement invariance of the 8-item BSRI. We also examined its construct validity, showing that scores on the BSRI were positively related to measures of negative affect, trait rumination, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Scores were negatively related to adaptive emotion regulation strategies and to positive affect. In Study 2 (n = 60), we demonstrated the measure’s sensitivity to an experimental manipulation of rumination. Taken together, these findings suggest that the BSRI is a quick-to-administer, valid, and reliable measure of state rumination.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)447-460
Number of pages14
JournalCognitive Therapy and Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - 26 Feb 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018.


  • BSRI
  • Questionnaire
  • Rumination
  • State measure


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