The Effect of Gadolinium Doping in [13C6,2H7]Glucose Formulations on 13C Dynamic Nuclear Polarization at 3.35 T

Talia Harris, Ayelet Gamliel, Atara Nardi-Schreiber, Jacob Sosna, J. Moshe Gomori, Rachel Katz-Brull*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The promise of hyperpolarized glucose as a non-radioactive imaging agent capable of reporting on multiple metabolic routes has led to recent advances in its dissolution-DNP (dDNP) driven polarization using UV-light induced radicals and trityl radicals at high field (6.7 T) and 1.1 K. However, most preclinical dDNP polarizers operate at the field of 3.35 T and 1.4–1.5 K. Minute amounts of Gd3+ complexes have shown large improvements in solid-state polarization, which can be translated to improved hyperpolarization in solution. However, this Gd3+ effect seems to depend on magnetic field strength, metal ion concentration, and sample formulation. The effect of varying Gd3+ concentrations at 3.35 T has been described for 13C-labeled pyruvic acid and acetate. However, it has not been studied for other compounds at this field. The results presented here suggest that Gd3+ doping can lead to various concentration and temperature dependent effects on the polarization of [13C6,2H7]glucose, not necessarily similar to the effects observed in pyruvic acid or acetate in size or direction. The maximal polarization for [13C6,2H7]glucose appears to be at a Gd3+ concentration of 2 mM, when irradiating for more than 2 h at the negative maximum of the DNP intensity profile. Surprisingly, for shorter irradiation times, higher polarization levels were determined at 1.50 K compared to 1.45 K, at a [Gd3+]=1.3 mM. This was explained by the build-up time constant and maximum at these temperatures.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)251-256
Number of pages6
Issue number3
StatePublished - 4 Feb 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under grant agreement No. 338040, the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No. 667192, the Israel Innovation Authority, KAMIN Incentive program, grant agreement No. 63361, and the Israeli Ministry of Science and Technology, the Golda Meir Award to A. N.-S. under agreement number 0395111.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim


  • build-up time constant
  • carbon-13 labeled pyruvate
  • hyperpolarized glucose
  • microwave frequency intensity profile
  • solid-state polarization


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