THIS CHAPTER CONSIDERS stages in the process of environmental and spatial change in the landscape of Palestine in the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century and the determinants and catalysts. During this period, which began with Napoleon's invasion of Egypt, Palestine, and the Levant, Palestine was transformed from a neglected backwater of the Ottoman Empire to a focal point of world attention. Consideration is given to changes in the natural landscape of forests, wetlands, and other habitats, resulting from spatial change, including changes in land use, that were a consequence of political and legal reforms as well as immigration to Palestine. These processes influenced the nomadic and the settled populations, land ownership patterns, and agricultural practices.
|Title of host publication
|Between Ruin and Restoration
|Subtitle of host publication
|An Environmental History of Israel
|University of Pittsburgh Press
|Number of pages
|Published - 2012
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