The extent of cytochrome P450 3A induction by antiseizure medications: A systematic review and network meta-analysis

Hagar Cohen, Ghadeer Mahajna, Tomer Ben-Shushan, Ilan Matok*, Sara Eyal*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: Antiseizure medications (ASMs) are commonly categorized as enzyme-inducers and non-enzyme-inducers based on their propensity to enhance the metabolism of concomitantly administered drugs. This systematic review and network meta-analysis aimed to rank ASMs as cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A)-inducers based on a comparative assessment of ASM-induced reduction in the concentrations of sensitive substrate drugs. Methods: The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews; CRD42022335846), and the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) standards were followed. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane until March 14, 2023 without an initial date restriction. Data were additionally obtained via the US Food and Drug Administration database. Studies had to be prospective, with ASM monotherapy for ≥5 days. The primary parameter was the magnitude of change in the area under the concentration–time curve of CYP3A substrates following treatment with the ASM. The standardized mean difference (SMD) was used as the point estimate for the indirect comparisons between ASMs using the pairwise method. Bias risk was assessed using the PKclin tool. Results: We identified 14 open-label, fixed-sequence studies with 370 participants. The effect size of 600 mg/day carbamazepine did not differ from those of 300 mg/day phenytoin (SMD = −.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −.18 to.07) and 200 mg/day cenobamate (SMD = −.11, 95% CI = −.26 to.04). Carbamazepine at 600 mg/day was the strongest CYP3A-inducer (P-score =.88), followed by carbamazepine 400 mg/day (.83), phenytoin 300 mg/day (.79), and cenobamate 200 mg/day (.73). Eslicarbazepine (800 mg/day) ranked higher than cenobamate 100 mg/day and oxcarbazepine 900 mg/day (.60,.39, and.37, respectively). Significance: Despite the limited number of studies, our network meta-analysis emphasizes that the magnitude of ASM effects on CYP3A substrate metabolism is a dose-dependent continuum. When possible, ASM classification as inducers should apply cutoff values tailored to the outcome. Prescribers should monitor plasma concentrations or clinical effects of CYP3A substrates and consider selecting concomitant medications accordingly.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)445-455
Number of pages11
JournalEpilepsia
Volume65
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. Epilepsia published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International League Against Epilepsy.

Keywords

  • AUC
  • CYP3A4
  • antiepileptic drugs
  • drug interactions
  • systematic review and meta-analysis

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