On the basis of Appreciative Inquiry (Cooperrider & Srivastva, 1987), we offer an interview protocol termed Feedforward Interview (FFI). FFI is designed to reveal new organizational knowledge both for managers and subordinates, which can lead to better alignment between employees' needs and organizational practices, and to improved relationships by enabling both parties to feel more positive about themselves and about each other. Following a detailed description of the FFI protocol and its rationale, we demonstrate how FFI may be used as a complement, or even as a replacement, for performance appraisal reviews, job selection interviews, and customer satisfaction surveys. The benefits of FFI appear to include eliciting positive emotions, fostering bonding, building psychological safety for sharing information, and creating internal transformations of both interviewer and interviewee. We conclude with a call for research to evaluate FFI's effectiveness and the conditions under which it will be most useful.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank Tova Abverbuch who introduced us to Appreciative Inquiry, Avi Feigenbaum, Lilach Sagiv, Dina Van-Dijk, Liat Levontin, Eyal Rechter, Edith Levintz, Tammar Zilber, Peter Heslin and Hed Sela for comments on an earlier draft of this paper, Ziva Malbin for suggesting an improvement in the protocol, and all the interviewers and interviewees who allowed us to learn from their experience. This research was supported by a grant from the Recanati Fund at the School of Business Administration, an ARI contract # DASW01-04-K-0001, and a Nidersachsen grant to the first author. The view, opinions, and/or findings contained in this paper are those of the authors and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision. An earlier version of this paper was delivered as a keynote lecture at the 26th International Congress of Applied Psychology. Athens, Greece (July, 2006).
- Appreciative inquiry
- Customer satisfaction
- Performance appraisal