The Grand Challenges of Organ Banking: Proceedings from the first global summit on complex tissue cryopreservation

Jedediah K. Lewis, John C. Bischof, Ido Braslavsky, Kelvin G.M. Brockbank, Gregory M. Fahy, Barry J. Fuller, Yoed Rabin, Alessandro Tocchio, Erik J. Woods, Brian G. Wowk, Jason P. Acker, Sebastian Giwa*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

100 Scopus citations


The first Organ Banking Summit was convened from Feb. 27 - March 1, 2015 in Palo Alto, CA, with events at Stanford University, NASA Research Park, and Lawrence Berkeley National Labs. Experts at the summit outlined the potential public health impact of organ banking, discussed the major remaining scientific challenges that need to be overcome in order to bank organs, and identified key opportunities to accelerate progress toward this goal. Many areas of public health could be revolutionized by the banking of organs and other complex tissues, including transplantation, oncofertility, tissue engineering, trauma medicine and emergency preparedness, basic biomedical research and drug discovery - and even space travel. Key remaining scientific sub-challenges were discussed including ice nucleation and growth, cryoprotectant and osmotic toxicities, chilling injury, thermo-mechanical stress, the need for rapid and uniform rewarming, and ischemia/reperfusion injury. A variety of opportunities to overcome these challenge areas were discussed, i.e. preconditioning for enhanced stress tolerance, nanoparticle rewarming, cyroprotectant screening strategies, and the use of cryoprotectant cocktails including ice binding agents.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)169-182
Number of pages14
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The first global Summit on the Grand Challenges in Organ Banking was made possible through the tremendous support of many partners and friends. The Organ Preservation Alliance owes many thanks to the Thiel Foundation for generous support that made this Summit possible, Society for Cryobiology and New Organ for sponsoring the first Organ Banking Hackathon for Young Investigators and for funding the fellowship award for the winning team; Singularity University for hosting the Organ Banking Hackathon at its campus in NASA Research Park, as well as for helping bring the Organ Preservation Alliance into existence and ultimately making the Summit possible; the Methuselah Foundation for its continued support; Sonia Arrison and Aydin Senkut for hosting a cocktail party at the Rosewood for key Summit participants; the Stanford Biomedical Engineering Society for hosting a full day of the Summit events on Stanford's Bio-X campus; Professor Uktan Demirci of Stanford Medical School for serving as the Summit Chair, and to Dr. Ron Zuckerman for hosting an event at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. Special thanks to Dr. Boris Schmalz, Valentina Morigi, and Robin Farmanfarmaian for valuable input on key content in this manuscript.

Funding Information:
This work was supported by: the Organ Preservation Alliance and Stanford Biomedical Engineering Society which organized and hosted the overall summit and sessions at Stanford respectively; the Thiel Foundation, the Methuselah foundation and Organovo, which provided grants that made the Summit possible; and the Society for Cryobiology, New Organ, and Singularity University LABS at NASA Research Park, which supported the Young Investigator Breakthroughs in Organ Banking Hackathon.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015.


  • Antifreeze proteins
  • Chilling injury
  • Cryobanking
  • Cryomacroscopy
  • Cryoprotectant screening
  • Cryoprotectant toxicity
  • Devitrification
  • Freeze tolerance
  • Ice binding proteins
  • Ischemia
  • Ischemic preconditioning
  • Nanoparticle warming
  • Organ banking
  • Organ preservation
  • Organ transplantation
  • Perfusion
  • Persufflation
  • Thermo-mechanical stress
  • Vitrification


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