The Impact of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Micronutrient Intake and Status in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

Neriya Levran*, Noah Levek, Bruria Sher, Noah Gruber, Arnon Afek, Efrat Monsonego-Ornan, Orit Pinhas-Hamiel*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the macronutrient and micronutrient intake and status in youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) following the consumption of a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD). Research Methods and Procedures: In a prospective intervention clinical trial, adolescents with T1DM using a continuous glucose monitoring device were enrolled. Following a cooking workshop, each participant received a personalized diet regime based on LCD (50–80 g carbohydrate/day). A Food Frequency Questionnaire was administered, and laboratory tests were taken before and 6 months following the intervention. Twenty participants were enrolled. Results: The median age was 17 years (15; 19), and the median diabetes duration was 10 years (8; 12). During the six-months intervention, carbohydrate intake decreased from 266 g (204; 316) to 87 g (68; 95) (p = 0.004). Energy intake, the energy percent from ultra-processed food, and fiber intake decreased (p = 0.001, p = 0.024, and p < 0.0001, respectively). These changes were accompanied by declines in BMI z-score (p = 0.019) and waist-circumference percentile (p = 0.007). Improvement was observed in the median HbA1c from 8.1% (7.5; 9.4) to 7.7% (6.9; 8.2) (p = 0.021). Significant declines below the DRI were shown in median intake levels of iron, calcium, vitamin B1, and folate. Conclusions: The LCD lowered ultra-processed food consumption, BMI z-scores and the indices of central obesity. However, LCDs require close nutritional monitoring due to the possibility of nutrient deficiencies.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number1418
JournalNutrients
Volume15
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.

Keywords

  • Food Frequency Questionnaire
  • HbA1c
  • low-carbohydrate diet
  • minerals
  • type 1 diabetes
  • vitamins

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