The interplay between bystanders’ intervention styles: An examination of the “bullying circle” approach

Michal Levy*, Thomas P. Gumpel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


This study explores correlations between bystanders’ intervention styles by means of the bullying circle model. Three aims were examined in this study. First, we reevaluated the number and type of bystander intervention styles in aggressive school incidents. Second, we examined the association between reports of relational aggression and victimization and bystander intervention styles. Third, we estimated relationships between the different bystander intervention styles, by examining two directional paths. Participants were 1,518 adolescents (61.9% boys, 38.1% girls) from 15 Israeli religious and secular middle and high schools. The data analysis indicated two new intervention styles: help-seeker and passive bystander. Two structural models, illustrating the path leading to and from provictim and antivictim bystander intervention styles are presented. The distinction between the “participant-role approach” and the bullying circle is discussed in order to address the theoretical difference between social categorization of fixed bystander roles as opposed to rating bystander intervention styles on a continuum.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)339-353
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of School Violence
Issue number3
StatePublished - 3 Jul 2018

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© 2018 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


  • school aggression bystander roles intervention styles


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