The metamorphosis of supernova SN 2008D/XRF 080109: A link between supernovae and GRBs/hypernovae

Paolo A. Mazzali, Stefano Valenti, Massimo Della Valle, Guido Chincarini, Daniel N. Sauer, Stefano Benetti, Elena Pian, Tsvi Piran, Valerio D'Elia, Nancy Elias-Rosa, Raffaella Margutti, Francesco Pasotti, L. Angelo Antonelli, Filomena Bufano, Sergio Campana, Enrico Cappellaro, Stefano Covino, Paolo D'Avanzo, Fabrizio Fiore, Dino FugazzaRoberto Gilmozzi, Deborah Hunter, Kate Maguire, Elisabetta Maiorano, Paola Marziani, Nicola Masetti, Felix Mirabel, Hripsime Navasardyan, Ken'ichi Nomoto, Eliana Palazzi, Andrea Pastorello, Nino Panagia, L. J. Pellizza, Re'em Sari, Stephen Smartt, Gianpiero Tagliaferri, Masaomi Tanaka, Stefan Taubenberger, Nozomu Tominaga, Carrie Trundle, Massimo Turatto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

191 Scopus citations


The only supernovae (SNe) to show gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) or early x-ray emission thus far are overenergetic, broad-lined type Ic SNe (hypernovae, HNe). Recently, SN 2008D has shown several unusual features: (i) weak x-ray flash (XRF), (ii) an early, narrow optical peak, (iii) disappearance of the broad lines typical of SN Ic HNe, and (iv) development of helium lines as in SNe Ib. Detailed analysis shows that SN 2008D was not a normal supernova: Its explosion energy (E ≈ 6 × 1051 erg) and ejected mass [∼7 times the mass of the Sun (MFish eye)] are intermediate between normal SNe Ibc and HNe. We conclude that SN 2008D was originally a ∼30 M Fish eye star. When it collapsed, a black hole formed and a weak, mildly relativistic jet was produced, which caused the XRF. SN 2008D is probably among the weakest explosions that produce relativistic jets. Inner engine activity appears to be present whenever massive stars collapse to black holes.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1185-1188
Number of pages4
Issue number5893
StatePublished - 29 Aug 2008


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