The micrometeorology of the Haifa bay area and mount Carmel during the summer

Ziv Klausner*, Mattya Ben-Efraim, Yehuda Arav, Eran Tas, Eyal Fattal*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The Haifa bay area (HBA), which includes Mount Carmel and the Zevulun valley is the third largest metropolitan area in Israel. It is also a centre of heavy industry and an important transportation hub which serve as sources of local anthropogenic pollution. Such sources are associated with adverse health effects. In order to estimate the possible exposure of the inhabitants in such heterogeneous orographic area, a detailed atmospheric transport and dispersion modelling study is required, which in turn must take into account the local micrometeorology. The aim of this study is to conduct a spatio-temporal analysis of the flow field in the HBA in order to identify the common patterns of the average wind and characterize the statistical parameters of turbulence in this area, essential for detailed pollutants dispersion modelling. This study analyses data collected during four months of summer in a network of 16 weather stations which extend across Mount Carmel and the Zevulun valley. It was found that, during the evening and night time on Mount Carmel, different flow patterns may develop on each side, separated by the watershed line. When such conditions do not develop, as well as during the daytime, the wind field, both on Mount Carmel and the Zevulun valley is approximately homogenous. The analysis of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory functions for the velocity standard deviations show a distinct difference between Mount Carmel and the Zevulun valley, as well as between strong and weak winds. This difference can be clearly seen also in the diurnal hourly distribution of atmospheric stabilities which exhibit higher proportions of unstable conditions in the Zevulun valley during day time and higher proportion of stable stratifications at the Mount Carmel during night-time.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number354
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Atmospheric boundary layer
  • Complex terrain
  • Complex terrain wind field interpolation scheme
  • Heterogeneous orogra- phy
  • Low winds
  • Marine urban area
  • Micrometeorology
  • Monin-Obukhov similarity theory
  • Turbulent parametrization


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