The present review focuses on the recent advances towards understanding the mode of operation of the imprinting center (IC) within the Prader-Willi/ Angelman syndromes (PWS/AS) domain. Special emphasis is put on the elucidation of the functional interaction between the two parts of the center, AS-IC and PWS-IC. The recent studies, on which the review is based, reveal cis-acting elements and trans-acting proteins that constitute the two parts of the IC and presumably provide the molecular mechanism for this interaction. AS-IC acquires the primary imprint during gametogenesis by establishing the maternal epigenotype. The unmethylated maternal allele of the AS-IC binds, very likely, a trans-acting factor that confers methylation on the PWS-IC maternal allele after fertilization. It is assumed that the PWS-IC paternal epigenotype, once established, spreads across the entire PWS/AS domain in the soma.