Translation of psbA mRNA in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplasts is regulated by a redox signal(s). RB60 is a member of a protein complex that binds with high affinity to the 5′-untranslated region of psbA mRNA. RB60 has been suggested to act as a redox-sensor subunit of the protein complex regulating translation of chloroplast psbA mRNA. Surprisingly, cloning of RB60 identified high homology to the endoplasmic reticulum-localized protein disulfide isomerase, including an endoplasmic reticulum-retention signal at its carboxyl terminus. Here we show, by in vitro import studies, that the recombinant RB60 is imported into isolated chloroplasts of C. reinhardtii and pea in a transit peptide-dependent manner. Subtractionation of C. reinhardtii chloroplasts revealed that the native RB60 is partitioned between the stroma and the thylakoids. The nature of association of native RB60, and imported recombinant RB60, with thylakoids is similar and suggests that RB60 is tightly bound to thylakoids. The targeting characteristics of RB60 and the potential implications of the association of RB60 with thylakoids are discussed.