Aims: To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Structured Preschool Participation Observation (SPO), based on the COnsensus-based-Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments. The SPO development was based on biopsychosocial and ecological models to evaluate children's participation in play, learning and social occupational areas. Methods: Following the establishment of content validity, construct validity using factor analysis and reliability were examined among 250 preschool children with typical development (TD). The known-groups procedure was used, comparing 88 children with developmental disabilities (DD), who attended special educational settings with the TD children. Results: Three factors accounted for 68% of the variance. High internal consistency (alpha>.812) was found, as well as a significant moderate-to-high inter-rater reliability in most areas. Children with TD scored significantly higher than children with DD with small to large effect sizes. Conclusions: The SPO appears to be a suitable measure for assessing children's participation in preschool activities through structured observation. Further studies are needed to further establish its psychometric properties, along with using additional scales of enjoyment and/or involvement and self-care activities. The SPO may assist in generating intervention goals for children with limitations in participation and may complement information gathered from parents.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Parts of this study were in collaboration with the Achiya Institute and were supported by the Bernard Van Leer Foundation (ISR-20088-0.25.1.1). We are grateful to the researchers and occupational therapists who assisted in this study, as well as to our partners in the community and the children.
This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (No. 30112017) and the Israeli Ministry of Education (No. 10.32-883).
© 2020 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
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