The quotient image: class-based re-rendering and recognition with varying illuminations

Amnon Shashua*, Tammy Riklin-Raviv

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

528 Scopus citations


The paper addresses the problem of class-based image-based recognition and rendering with varying illumination. The rendering problem is defined as follows: Given a single input image of an object and a sample of images with varying illumination conditions of other objects of the same general class, re-render the input image to simulate new illumination conditions. The class-based recognition problem is similarly defined: Given a single image of an object in a database of images of other objects, some of them are multiply sampled under varying illumination, identify (match) any novel image of that object under varying illumination with the single image of that object in the database. We focus on Lambertian surface classes and, in particular, the class of human faces. The key result in our approach is based on a definition of an illumination invariant signature image which enables an analytic generation of the image space with varying illumination. We show that a small database of objects-in our experiments as few as two objects-is sufficient for generating the image space with varying illumination of any new object of the class from a single input image of that object. In many cases, the recognition results outperform by far conventional methods and the re-rendering is of remarkable quality considering the size of the database of example images and the mild preprocess required for making the algorithm work.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)129-139
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2001


  • Image-based rendering
  • Photometric alignment
  • Visual recognition


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