The Recharging Infrastructure Needs for Long Distance Travel by Electric Vehicles: A Comparison of Battery-Switching and Quick-Charging Stations

Linda Christensen, Sigal Kaplan*, Thomas C. Jensen, Stefan Røpke, Allan Olsen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

2 Scopus citations


On-road electric vehicle recharging infrastructure is essential in the transformation of electric vehicles into a practical transportation option. This study focuses upon assessing the need for recharging infrastructure for long distance travel for a large market share of electric vehicles, finding the optimal infrastructure deployment, and understanding the economic, social and environmental costs and benefits associated with the optimal infrastructure deployment. The analysis considers quick-charging and battery-switching as plausible recharging technologies. Results show: (i) the promotion of electric vehicles is beneficial when considering economic costs and benefits for operators and users, tax redistribution, and environmental externalities, even with a relatively modest market share; (ii) the number of required recharging stations for satisfaction of the travel demand is at the magnitude of 1–2% of the current gasoline infrastructure, under the assumption of wide availability of off-road recharging at home and the workplace; (iii) the optimal deployment of the recharging stations is along the main national highways outside of urban conurbations, under the assumption of wide availability of home recharging; (iv) the battery-switching technology is far more attractive to the consumer than the quick-charging technology for long-distance travel requiring more than one recharging visit.

Original languageAmerican English
Title of host publicationAdvances in Geographic Information Science
PublisherSpringer Heidelberg
Number of pages21
StatePublished - 2018

Publication series

NameAdvances in Geographic Information Science
ISSN (Print)1867-2434
ISSN (Electronic)1867-2442

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The current study comprises a portion of the “Greening European Transportation Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles” project funded by the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) program, as well as a portion of the Edison project funded by the Danish ForskEl program. The authors wish to acknowledge the contribution of Stefan Mabit and Anders Fjendbo Jensen to the market share model, and the contribution of Min Wen, Gilbert Laporte, Oli Madsen, and Anders Nørrelund to the development of the Edison model.

Publisher Copyright:
© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2018.


  • Battery-switching
  • EVs
  • Electric vehicles
  • Location optimization
  • Quick-charging
  • Recharging stations
  • Socio-economic analysis
  • Spatial-optimization


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