Hybrid organometal halide perovskites are known for their excellent optoelectronic functionality as well as their wide-ranging chemical flexibility. The composition of hybrid perovskite devices has trended toward increasing complexity as fine-tuned properties are pursued, including multielement mixing on the constituents A and B and halide sites. However, this tunability presents potential challenges for charge extraction in functional devices. Poor consistency and repeatability between devices may arise due to variations in composition and microstructure. Within a single device, spatial heterogeneity in composition and phase segregation may limit the device from achieving its performance potential. This review details how the nanoscale elemental distribution and charge collection in hybrid perovskite materials evolve as chemical complexity increases, highlighting recent results using nondestructive operando synchrotron-based X-ray nanoprobe techniques. The results reveal a strong link between local chemistry and charge collection that must be controlled to develop robust, high-performance hybrid perovskite materials for optoelectronic devices.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank Martin V. Holt and Peter Fuesz for helpful discussions in operation at APS 26-ID-C. D.P.F. acknowledges the support of a Hellman Fellowship. Y.L. and D.P.F. acknowledge the support of a California Energy Commission Advance Breakthrough award (EPC-16-050). M.S. and M.B. acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Department of Energy (DOE) under NSF CA No. EEC-433 1041895. This research used resources of the Advanced Photon Source, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. Any opinions, findings and conclusions, or recommendation expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of NSF or DOE.
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- hybrid perovskites
- mixed halides
- nanoprobe X-ray fluorescence