The Relationship between Young Children’s Graphomotor Skills and Their Environment: A Cross-Sectional Study

Rachel Tzofia Sinvani*, Anat Golos, Stav Ben Zagmi, Yafit Gilboa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The current study aimed to examine the unique contribution of personal and environmental factors to explain graphomotor skills in typically developing preschoolers and first-year elementary school students. A convenience sample of 136 Israeli children aged three–seven years was recruited. Graphomotor skills were assessed using the Gilboa Functional Test (GIFT); personal and environmental factors were assessed using a demographic questionnaire and the Home Literacy Experiences Questionnaire (HLEQ). A hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis revealed that home literacy and educational approach accounted for 43.1% of the variance of graphomotor skills (R2 = 40.4, p < 0.000), each providing a unique contribution to the explained variance after controlling for age, gender, and spoken language. Generally, our results supported the bioecological model, with proximal factors (home literacy and educational approach) having a greater influence on child graphomotor skills than distal factors (parental socioeconomic and immigration status). By highlighting the role of environmental factors in graphomotor development, these results can be used as a conceptual framework for developing early intervention programs.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number1338
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number2
StatePublished - 11 Jan 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • bioecological model
  • educational approach
  • motor skills
  • school readiness
  • socioeconomic status
  • typically developing


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