Many studies have reported concurrent relationships between depressive symptoms and various personality, cognitive, and personality-cognitive vulnerabilities, but the degree of overlap among these vulnerabilities is unclear. Moreover, whereas most investigations of these vulnerabilities have focused on depression, their possible relationships with anxiety have not been adequately examined. The present study included 550 high school juniors and examined the cross-sectional relationships among neuroticism, negative inferential style, dysfunctional attitudes, sociotropy, and autonomy, with a wide range of anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as the incremental validity of these different putative vulnerabilities when examined simultaneously. Correlational analyses revealed that all five vulnerabilities were significantly related to symptoms of both anxiety and depression. Whereas neuroticism accounted for significant unique variance in all symptom outcomes, individual cognitive and personality-cognitive vulnerabilities accounted for small and only sometimes statistically significant variance across outcomes. Importantly, however, for most outcomes the majority of symptom variance was accounted for by shared aspects of the vulnerabilities rather than unique aspects. Implications of these results for understanding cognitive and personality-cognitive vulnerabilities to depression and anxiety are discussed.
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Acknowledgments This research was supported by National Institute of Mental Health Grants R01 MH65651 to Richard Zinbarg and Susan Mineka (NU) and R01 MH65652 to Michelle Craske (UCLA). This research was also supported by National Institute of Mental Health Grant F31 MH076579 to the first author. Richard Zinbarg was also supported by the Patricia M. Nielsen Research Chair of the Family Institute at Northwestern University. Grateful acknowledgment is given to Jeff Jaeger, Angela Chiong, Lauren Spies, Catherine D’Avanzato, Corissa Callahan, and Natalie Castriotta.
- Cognitive vulnerability
- Incremental validity