Five patients with pulmonary mucormycosis diagnosed during life are described. All had underlying predisposing conditions: either posttransplant or hematologic malignancies. In all cases, the diagnosis was made using fiberoptic bronchoscopy. In three patients, BAL was diagnostic. In two of these patients, the diagnosis was made by identifying the typical hyphae of mucormycosis in the BAL fluid alone. Transbronchial biopsy was diagnostic in three patients. Treatment was based on IV antifungal chemotherapy together with surgical removal of involved lung tissue whenever feasible. The clinical outcome of these patients was dismal and was determined primarily by the underlying condition.