The role of nitric oxide in brain disorders: Autism spectrum disorder and other psychiatric, neurological, and neurodegenerative disorders

Manish Kumar Tripathi, Maryam Kartawy, Haitham Amal*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

82 Scopus citations

Abstract

Nitric oxide (NO) is a multifunctional signalling molecule and a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in physiological and pathophysiological processes. In physiological conditions, NO regulates cell survival, differentiation and proliferation of neurons. It also regulates synaptic activity, plasticity and vesicle trafficking. NO affects cellular signalling through protein S-nitrosylation, the NO-mediated posttranslational modification of cysteine thiols (SNO). SNO can affect protein activity, protein-protein interaction and protein localization. Numerous studies have shown that excessive NO and SNO can lead to nitrosative stress in the nervous system, contributing to neuropathology. In this review, we summarize the role of NO and SNO in the progression of neurodevelopmental, psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, with special attention to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We provide mechanistic insights into the contribution of NO in diverse brain disorders. Finally, we suggest that pharmacological agents that can inhibit or augment the production of NO as well as new approaches to modulate the formation of SNO-proteins can serve as a promising approach for the treatment of diverse brain disorders.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number101567
JournalRedox Biology
Volume34
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 The Authors

Keywords

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Autism spectrum disorder
  • Brain disorders
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Neurodevelopmental disorders
  • Nitric oxide
  • Psychiatry
  • S-nitrosylation
  • SHANK3

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