The shift to defence in Israel’s hybrid military strategy

Oren Barak*, Amit Sheniak, Assaf Shapira

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


This paper traces the significant change that has occurred in the balance between offense and defence in Israel’s ‘hybrid’ military strategy in recent decades. Relying on fresh materials concerning the organizational, doctrinal, and procurement processes of Israel’s military, we identify a shift from offense towards defence as the preferred way to protect Israel in the face of new security threats. We also show that due to rapidly changing security challenges, limited resources, and the military’s organizational culture, this change has been gradual, incremental, improvised, and largely informal. We propose that similar changes may characterize other states facing new security challenges.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)345-377
Number of pages33
JournalJournal of Strategic Studies
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, © 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


  • Israel
  • Military strategy
  • defence
  • hybridity
  • offense


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