The Structure of the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire Across 13 Countries

Nimrod Levin*, Shagini Udayar, Yuliya Lipshits-Braziler, Itamar Gati, Jérôme Rossier*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Assessing the causes of career indecision is among the first steps in career counseling. Gati et al. (1996) proposed a multidimensional taxonomy of career indecision and developed the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ), consisting of 10 scales that cohere into three higher-order clusters and a total score. However, studies investigating the CDDQ reported cross-cultural variations in its factor structure. To examine the cross-cultural generalizability of the CDDQ, we compared four alternative factor models using data from 39 diverse samples from 13 countries with nine language versions (N = 19,562). Using weighted least squares mean- and variance-adjusted estimation, a robust estimator for nonnormal data, comparison of fit indices supported the original CDDQ structure across countries and languages. These findings support the cross-cultural generalizability of the structure of the CDDQ and the use of 10 scale scores, three cluster scores, and a total score, consistent with the taxonomy underlying the CDDQ.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)129-148
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Career Assessment
Issue number1
Early online date6 May 2022
StateE-pub ahead of print - 6 May 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We are grateful for the generosity of our colleagues who were willing to share their data, thereby making the study possible. The study included the analyses of previously collected secondary data by the authors (10 samples) and other research teams (29 samples). Information on the source of each sample can be found in Supplemental Appendix 3 in the online supplementary materials. This research has been supported in part by the Samuel and Esther Melton Chair of Itamar Gati.

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2022.


  • career assessment
  • career decision-making
  • career decision-making difficulties
  • career indecision
  • confirmatory factor analysis


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