In this article, the authors discuss the role of homework in behavior therapy for the anxiety disorders. First, the authors describe the essential components of behavior therapy that include exposure to feared consequences and cessation of all avoidance behaviors. Then, the authors briefly review the literature on the relationship between homework compliance and treatment outcome. Next, the authors discuss the way that homework is used in terms of self-monitoring and exposure exercises during the course of treatment. Finally, the authors discuss the practicalities of encouraging homework compliance and managing noncompliance.