Today’s eating patterns are characterized by the consumption of unbalanced diets (UBDs) resulting in a variety of health consequences on the one hand, and the consumption of dietary supplements in order to achieve overall health and wellness on the other. Balanced nutrition is especially crucial during childhood and adolescence as these time periods are characterized by rapid growth and development of the skeleton. We show the harmful effect of UBD on longitudinal bone growth, trabecular and cortical bone micro-architecture and bone mineral density; which were analyzed by micro-CT scanning. Three point bending tests demonstrate the negative effect of the diet on the mechanical properties of the bone material as well. Addition of Spirulina algae or Pleurotus eryngii or Agaricus Bisporus mushrooms, to the UBD, was able to improve growth and impaired properties of the bone. 16SrRNA Sequencing identified dysbiosis in the UBD rats’ microbiota, with high levels of pro-inflammatory associated bacteria and low levels of bacteria associated with fermentation processes and bone related mechanisms. These results provide insight into the connection between diet, the skeletal system and the gut microbiota, and reveal the positive impact of three chosen dietary supplements on bone development and quality presumably through the microbiome composition.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Agaricus bisporus
- Bone quality
- Pleurotus eryngii
- Spirulina algae
- Unbalanced diet