Therapeutic options in COVID-19

Ehud Horwitz, Ofer Perzon, Dror Mevorach

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

Abstract

Treatment of COVID-19 can be categorized into prophylactic treatment, early-stage treatment, and late-stage treatment. Prophylactic treatment, as either pre or postexposure passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies, is currently limited to high-risk groups, with preexisting risk factors for severe disease and death in case of contracting COVID-19. Additional prophylactic treatment for hospitalized patients includes anticoagulation. In early treatment, when the infectious state is dominant, antiviral agents are used as well as passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies. Late-stage treatment in progressive and-inflammatory disease characterized by a cytokine storm and lung involvement in most severe/critical patients, includes corticosteroids, interluekin-6 inhibitors, and JAK inhibitors. Oxygen support is mandatory in severe patients and in patients with moderate to severe adult respiratory distress syndrome and refractory hypoxemia. Rescue procedures include protonation, alveolar recruitment maneuvers, neuromuscular blockade, pulmonary vasodilators, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Additional potential treatments that have not been yet authorized are beyond the scope of this discussion.

Original languageAmerican English
Title of host publicationAutoimmunity, COVID-19, Post-COVID19 Syndrome and COVID-19 Vaccination
PublisherElsevier
Pages647-672
Number of pages26
ISBN (Electronic)9780443185663
ISBN (Print)9780443185670
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords

  • Anti-viral treatment
  • Anticoagulation
  • Baricitinib
  • COVID-19
  • Convalescent plasma
  • Corticosteroids
  • Cytokine storm
  • Dexamethasone
  • IL-6 inhibitors
  • JAK inhibitors
  • Molnupiravir
  • Monoclonal antibodies
  • Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir
  • Passive immunization
  • Remdesivir
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Tocilizumab

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