Therapy-related leukemia or myelodysplasia (t-leuk/MDS) is a serious problem that is increasing in frequency. We studied the clinical characteristics of 96 patients (pts) with a mean age of 48 years, and analyzed the molecular parameters that could predispose to t-leuk/MDS. Hematological malignancies were the most common primary (53%), followed by breast and ovarian cancer (30% combined). The mean latency until the development of t-AML was 45.5 months. Median survival was 10 months. Cytogenetics was abnormal in 89% of pts. FLT3 internal tandem duplications were found in six of 41 (14.6%) pts, of whom four had an abnormal karyotype. Analysis of drug metabolism and disposition genes showed a protective effect of the CYP3A4 1*B genotype against the development of t-leuk/MDS, whereas the CC genotype of MDR1 C3435T and the NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 codon 187 polymorphism were both noncontributory. Microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis using fluoresceinated PCR with ABI sequence analyzer demonstrated that 41% of pts had high levels of MSI in four or more of 10 microsatellite loci. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated reduced expression of MSH2 and MLH1 in 6/10 pts with MSI as compared to 0/5 of pts without MSI. In conclusion, genetic predisposition as well as epigenetic events contribute to the etiology of t-AML/MDS.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Dr Orly Zelig assisted in performing some of the experiments. We thank Lisa Deutsch for statistical analysis. This work was supported by grant #4600 from the Chief Scientist’s Office, Israel Ministry of Health (to DR), grant number 590/03 from the Israel Science Foundation (to DR), and a grant of the Israel Cancer Association (to DB-Y). We gratefully acknowledge the generous support of the Gabriella Rich Foundation and the Caesaria Edmond Benjamin De Rothchild Foundation.
- ABL oncogene
- Microsatellite instability