A typical fresh–saline water interface in a coastal aquifer is characterized by saline-water circulation below the interface and freshwater flow above. Both flows are perpendicular to the shoreline. The flow pattern near two separated saline lakes is more complicated. For example, in the Middle East, the Dead Sea northern basin and the evaporation ponds of the Dead Sea Works are adjacent to each other but separated. The northern basin level is dropping by 1.1 m/year and the evaporation ponds’ levels are increasing by 0.2 m/year. The fresh–saline water interface in such situation is numerically simulated. Streamlines parallel or semiparallel to the shoreline are significant. Moreover, the fresh–saline water interface intrudes landward adjacent to the higher saline lake and is pushed lakeward adjacent to the lower saline lake. The simulation results support field observations showing that the interface migrates vertically at a faster rate relative to the changes in the water table and the lake levels.
|Translated title of the contribution||Three-dimensional configuration and dynamics of the fresh–saline water interface near two saline lakes with different levels (Middle East)|
|Number of pages||11|
|State||Published - Aug 2021|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Iyad Swaed and Alon Moshe are acknowledged for measuring the EC profiles in the field. Data were not used, nor created for the numerical model. The data of the EC profiles in boreholes were measured by the Geological Survey of Israel and all of this data is detailed in Fig.?11. Finally, we most gratefully acknowledge the very useful comments in the reviews by Ekkehard Holzbecher and one anonymous reviewer.
This work was supported by the Israel Water Authority and the Ministry of Energy.
© 2021, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.
- Groundwater modeling
- Middle East
- Salt-water/freshwater relations
- Solute transport
- Two saline lakes