Ti-Doped WO3 synthesized by a facile wet bath method for improved electrochromism

Yi Zhan, Ming Rui Joel Tan, Xing Cheng, Wei Ming Alvin Tan, Guo Fa Cai, Jing Wei Chen, Vipin Kumar, Shlomo Magdassi*, Pooi See Lee

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Scopus citations


Electrochromic materials could modulate the optical transmittance reversibly by the application of electric potential and the increase in the surface area for fast ionic diffusion is an efficient way to improve their electrochromism. In this work, WO3 based nanomaterials with a size as small as 5 nm were synthesized via a facile wet bath method that leads to Ti doping of WO3 based on the heterovalency of W(vi) and Ti(iv). Ti doping improved the WO3 electrochromism effectiveness in transmittance contrast and coloration efficiency due to the reduced crystallite size and therefore an increase in the surface area, the Ti doping also enhanced the cycling stability benefiting from the stable Ti-O bonding. However, the coloring/bleaching kinetics were deteriorated due to the reduced proton diffusion coefficient after the Ti ion substitution into the WO3 lattice. A high coloration efficiency of 106.6 cm2 C-1 and a good optical contrast of ∼67.6% can be obtained for the optimized Ti-doped WO3 at a wavelength of 633 nm.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)9995-10000
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Materials Chemistry C
Issue number38
StatePublished - 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


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