Aggregation of the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) initiates a cascade of signaling events leading to release of preformed inflammatory and allergy mediators and de novo synthesis and secretion of cytokines and other compounds. The first biochemically well defined step of this signaling cascade is tyrosine phosphorylation of the FcεRI subunits by Src family kinase Lyn, followed by recruitment and activation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). Activity of Syk is decisive for the formation of multicomponent signaling assemblies, the signalo-somes, in the vicinity of the receptors. Formation of the signalosomes is dependent on the presence of transmembrane adaptor proteins (TRAPs). These proteins are characterized by a short extracellular domain, a single transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail with various motifs serving as anchors for cytoplasmic signaling molecules. In mast cells five TRAPs have been identified [linker for activation of T cells (LAT), non-T cell activation linker (NTAL), linker for activation of X cells (LAX), phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains (PAG), and growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2)-binding adaptor protein, transmembrane (GAPT)]; engagement of four of them (LAT NTAL, LAX, and PAG) in FcεRI signaling has been documented. Here we discuss recent progress in the understanding of how TRAPs affect FcεRI-mediated mast cell signaling. The combined data indicate that individual TRAPs have irreplaceable roles in important signaling events such as calcium response, degranulation, cytokines production, and chemotaxis.
- Ige receptor
- Mast cells
- Plasma membrane
- Transmembrane adaptor proteins