Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica 4,,12:i:- sequence type 34 represents a worldwide public health risk. To determine its origin in the United States, we reconstructed a time-scaled phylogeny with a discrete trait geospatial model. The clone in the United States was introduced from Europe on multiple occasions in the early 2000s.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Global Food Venture-MnDRIVE Initiative, the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (Animal Health Formula Fund project MIN-62-091) of the US Department of Agriculture, the Rapid Agricultural Response Fund, and the Swine Disease Eradication Center at the University of Minnesota. In addition, the United States-Israel Binational Agricultural Research and Development Fund awarded a Vaadia-BARD postdoctoral fellowship (no. FI-565-17) to E.E. A.E.M. is a Food Standards Agency research Fellow and is supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council Institute Strategic Programme Microbes in the Food Chain BB/R012504/1 and its constituent project BBS/E/ F/000PR10348 (Theme 1, Epidemiology and Evolution of Pathogens in the Food Chain). The Ramón y Cajal postdoctoral contract from the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness (MINECO) (RYC-2016-20422) was awarded to J.A.
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