Tutorial: How to build and control an all-fiber wavefront modulator using mechanical perturbations

Ronen Shekel*, Kfir Sulimany, Shachar Resisi, Zohar Finkelstein, Ohad Lib, Sébastien M. Popoff, Yaron Bromberg*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Multimode optical fibers support the dense, low-loss transmission of many spatial modes, making them attractive for technologies such as communications and imaging. However, information propagating through multimode fibers is scrambled, due to modal dispersion and mode mixing. This is usually rectified using wavefront shaping techniques with devices such as spatial light modulators. Recently, we demonstrated an all-fiber system for controlling light propagation inside multimode fibers using mechanical perturbations, called the fiber piano. In this tutorial we explain the design considerations and experimental methods needed to build a fiber piano, and review applications where fiber pianos have been used.

Original languageEnglish
Article number033002
JournalJPhys Photonics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd


  • fiber piano
  • multimode fibers
  • wavefront shaping


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