Two is better than one: longitudinal detection and volumetric evaluation of brain metastases after Stereotactic Radiosurgery with a deep learning pipeline

Yonny Hammer, Wenad Najjar, Lea Kahanov, Leo Joskowicz*, Yigal Shoshan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: Close MRI surveillance of patients with brain metastases following Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) treatment is essential for assessing treatment response and the current disease status in the brain. This follow-up necessitates the comparison of target lesion sizes in pre- (prior) and post-SRS treatment (current) T1W-Gad MRI scans. Our aim was to evaluate SimU-Net, a novel deep-learning model for the detection and volumetric analysis of brain metastases and their temporal changes in paired prior and current scans. Methods: SimU-Net is a simultaneous multi-channel 3D U-Net model trained on pairs of registered prior and current scans of a patient. We evaluated its performance on 271 pairs of T1W-Gad MRI scans from 226 patients who underwent SRS. An expert oncological neurosurgeon manually delineated 1,889 brain metastases in all the MRI scans (1,368 with diameters > 5 mm, 834 > 10 mm). The SimU-Net model was trained/validated on 205 pairs from 169 patients (1,360 metastases) and tested on 66 pairs from 57 patients (529 metastases). The results were then compared to the ground truth delineations. Results: SimU-Net yielded a mean (std) detection precision and recall of 1.00±0.00 and 0.99±0.06 for metastases > 10 mm, 0.90±0.22 and 0.97±0.12 for metastases > 5 mm of, and 0.76±0.27 and 0.94±0.16 for metastases of all sizes. It improves lesion detection precision by 8% for all metastases sizes and by 12.5% for metastases < 10 mm with respect to standalone 3D U-Net. The segmentation Dice scores were 0.90±0.10, 0.89±0.10 and 0.89±0.10 for the above metastases sizes, all above the observer variability of 0.80±0.13. Conclusion: Automated detection and volumetric quantification of brain metastases following SRS have the potential to enhance the assessment of treatment response and alleviate the clinician workload.

Original languageAmerican English
JournalJournal of Neuro-Oncology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024, The Author(s).

Keywords

  • Brain metastases detection and segmentation
  • Longitudinal evaluation
  • Stereotactic radiosurgery evaluation
  • Volumetric brain metastases assessment

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