Two is better than one: longitudinal detection and volumetric evaluation of brain metastases after Stereotactic Radiosurgery with a deep learning pipeline

Yonny Hammer, Wenad Najjar, Lea Kahanov, Leo Joskowicz*, Yigal Shoshan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

PURPOSE: Close MRI surveillance of patients with brain metastases following Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) treatment is essential for assessing treatment response and the current disease status in the brain. This follow-up necessitates the comparison of target lesion sizes in pre- (prior) and post-SRS treatment (current) T1W-Gad MRI scans. Our aim was to evaluate SimU-Net, a novel deep-learning model for the detection and volumetric analysis of brain metastases and their temporal changes in paired prior and current scans.

METHODS: SimU-Net is a simultaneous multi-channel 3D U-Net model trained on pairs of registered prior and current scans of a patient. We evaluated its performance on 271 pairs of T1W-Gad MRI scans from 226 patients who underwent SRS. An expert oncological neurosurgeon manually delineated 1,889 brain metastases in all the MRI scans (1,368 with diameters > 5 mm, 834 > 10 mm). The SimU-Net model was trained/validated on 205 pairs from 169 patients (1,360 metastases) and tested on 66 pairs from 57 patients (529 metastases). The results were then compared to the ground truth delineations.

RESULTS: SimU-Net yielded a mean (std) detection precision and recall of 1.00±0.00 and 0.99±0.06 for metastases > 10 mm, 0.90±0.22 and 0.97±0.12 for metastases > 5 mm of, and 0.76±0.27 and 0.94±0.16 for metastases of all sizes. It improves lesion detection precision by 8% for all metastases sizes and by 12.5% for metastases < 10 mm with respect to standalone 3D U-Net. The segmentation Dice scores were 0.90±0.10, 0.89±0.10 and 0.89±0.10 for the above metastases sizes, all above the observer variability of 0.80±0.13.

CONCLUSION: Automated detection and volumetric quantification of brain metastases following SRS have the potential to enhance the assessment of treatment response and alleviate the clinician workload.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)547-555
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Neuro-Oncology
Volume166
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024, The Author(s).

Keywords

  • Brain metastases detection and segmentation
  • Longitudinal evaluation
  • Stereotactic radiosurgery evaluation
  • Volumetric brain metastases assessment

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