The rupture of the interface joining two materials under frictional contact controls their macroscopic sliding. Interface rupture dynamics depend markedly on the mechanical properties of the bulk materials that bound the frictional interface. When the materials are similar, recent experimental and theoretical work has shown that shear cracks described by Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) quantitatively describe the rupture of frictional interfaces. When the elastic properties of the two materials are dissimilar, many new effects take place that result from bimaterial coupling: the normal stress at the interface is elastodynamically coupled to local slip rates. At low rupture velocities, bimaterial coupling is not very significant and interface rupture is governed by ‘bimaterial cracks’ that are described well by LEFM. As rupture velocities increase, we experimentally and theoretically show how bimaterial cracks become unstable at a subsonic critical rupture velocity, cT. When the rupture direction opposes the direction of applied shear in the softer material, we show that cT is the subsonic limiting velocity. When ruptures propagate in the direction of applied shear in the softer material, we demonstrate that cT provides an explanation for how and when slip pulses (new rupture modes characterized by spatially localized slip) are generated.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the International Research Project “Non-Equilibrium Physics of Complex Systems” (IRP-PhyComSys, France–Israel) and by the Laboratoire International Associé “Matière: Structure et Dynamique” (LIA-MSD, France–Chile) . M. A.-B. acknowledges the support of the Lady Davis Fellowship Trust . J. F. and H. S. acknowledge the support of the Israel Science Foundation (Grant 840/19 ).
This work was supported by the International Research Project ?Non-Equilibrium Physics of Complex Systems? (IRP-PhyComSys, France?Israel) and by the Laboratoire International Associ? ?Mati?re: Structure et Dynamique? (LIA-MSD, France?Chile). M. A.-B. acknowledges the support of the Lady Davis Fellowship Trust. J. F. and H. S. acknowledge the support of the Israel Science Foundation (Grant 840/19).
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- Bimaterial rupture
- Earthquake dynamics