Feline lower urinary tract diseases in general, and urethral obstruction (UO) in particular, are common clinical conditions in cats. The aims of this study were to identify risk factors for UO, to characterise clinical and clinicopathological signs, outcome and recurrence, as well as risk factors for mortality and recurrence. Eighty-two cats with UO were compared to 82 sex and time matched controls. The mean age of cats with UO was significantly lower compared to controls, while the mean body weight was higher. The proportion of indoors-outdoors cats was significantly lower in the study group compared to the control group, and the proportion of cats consuming only dry food was higher. Overall mortality was 8.5%. Ionised calcium was significantly higher in survivors compared to non-survivors, and the prevalence of hypocalcaemia was lower. Recurrence in 6 months and 2 years were 22% and 24%, respectively. Cats with recurrence had significantly lower urine pH at presentation.