CYP3A4 is recognized as the main enzyme involved in the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics in the human body and its inhibition may lead to undesirable consequences. Stilbenes, including resveratrol, belong to a group of dietary health-promoting compounds that also act as inhibitors of CYP3A4. The aim of this study was to examine the use of computer modeling of enzyme-ligand interactions to analyze and predict the inhibition of structurally related compounds. To this end, an aldehyde group was attached to resveratrol and the interactions of CYP3A4 with resveratrol, its aldehyde analogue (RA) and a known synthetic inhibitor were studied and compared in two biological models. Specifically, the metabolism of testosterone was examined in a human intestine cell line (Caco-2/TC7) and in rat liver microsomes (RLM). The results demonstrated a weak inhibitory effect of RA on CYP3A4, as compared to resveratrol itself, in both biological models. Human CYP3A4 was more susceptible to inhibition than the commonly used model isozyme from rat. Modeling of the binding site of CYP3A4 revealed a combination of three types of interactions: hydrophobic interactions, electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonds. A docking simulation revealed that the RA lacked an important binding feature, as compared to resveratrol, and that that difference may be responsible for its lower level of affinity for CYP3A4. Software analysis of binding affinity may serve as a predictive tool for designing new therapeutic compounds in terms of inhibition of CYP3A4 and help to reveal the biochemical nature of the interactions of dietary compounds, herbal compounds and drugs whose metabolism is mediated by this enzyme.
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© 2015 Basheer et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.