Somatic mutations are highly enriched at transcription factor (TF) binding sites, with the strongest trend being observed for ultraviolet light (UV)-induced mutations in melanomas. One of the main mechanisms proposed for this hypermutation pattern is the inefficient repair of UV lesions within TF-binding sites, caused by competition between TFs bound to these lesions and the DNA repair proteins that must recognize the lesions to initiate repair. However, TF binding to UV-irradiated DNA is poorly characterized, and it is unclear whether TFs maintain specificity for their DNA sites after UV exposure. We developed UV-Bind, a high-throughput approach to investigate the impact of UV irradiation on protein-DNA binding specificity. We applied UV-Bind to ten TFs from eight structural families, and found that UV lesions significantly altered the DNA-binding preferences of all the TFs tested. The main effect was a decrease in binding specificity, but the precise effects and their magnitude differ across factors. Importantly, we found that despite the overall reduction in DNA-binding specificity in the presence of UV lesions, TFs can still compete with repair proteins for lesion recognition, in a manner consistent with their specificity for UV-irradiated DNA. In addition, for a subset of TFs, we identified a surprising but reproducible effect at certain nonconsensus DNA sequences, where UV irradiation leads to a high increase in the level of TF binding. These changes in DNA-binding specificity after UV irradiation, at both consensus and nonconsensus sites, have important implications for the regulatory and mutagenic roles of TFs in the cell.
|Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
|Published - 8 Mar 2023
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2023 the Author(s).
- UV photoproducts
- protein-DNA binding
- transcription factors